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PDF - L’avenir à plus long terme du système de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme (2016)

European Court of Human Rights
Format : PDF PDF
158715FRA
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Comité directeur pour les droits de l’homme (CDDH)
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Quels sont les défis actuels et futurs pour l’avenir à plus long terme du système de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme ? Comment y répondre ?

Ce rapport est le résultat de travaux intergouvernementaux menés tout au long du biennium 2014-2015 au sein du Comité directeur pour les droits de l’homme (CDDH) et de ses instances subordonnées, le Comité d’experts sur la réforme de la Cour (DH-GDR) et son Groupe de rédaction « F » sur la réforme de la Cour (GT-GDR-F), en réponse aux paragraphes 35. c à 35. f de la Déclaration de Brighton.

Pour sortir des sentiers battus et analyser de manière exhaustive l’ensemble du système de la Convention, des méthodes de travail particulièrement innovantes ont été mises en place. Sept experts extérieurs indépendants ont été associés à l’ensemble des travaux préparatoires. Un appel ouvert à contributions a été lancé à travers l’Europe et des experts ad hoc issus du monde universitaire et de la société civile ont participé aux travaux, enrichis en outre par la Conférence sur l’avenir à long terme de la Cour organisée par le réseau universitaire PluriCourts à Oslo en avril 2014. Le rapport reflète également les travaux menés au sein d’autres organes du Conseil de l’Europe et envisage les suites à donner à la Déclaration de Bruxelles (27 mars 2015) portant sur « la mise en œuvre de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, notre responsabilité partagée ».

Le rapport analyse en détail quatre grands domaines cruciaux pour l’efficacité à plus long terme et la viabilité du système de la Convention :
La mise en œuvre de la Convention au niveau national ;
L’autorité de la Cour ;
L’exécution des arrêts de la Cour et sa surveillance ;
La place de la Convention dans l’ordre juridique européen et international.

Les défis inhérents à chacun de ces domaines sont identifiés, ainsi que les réponses à y apporter par l’ensemble des acteurs du système de la Convention.

Préface
Résumé
Introduction
     A. Mandat pour les travaux sur l’avenir à plus long terme du système de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme
     B. Méthodes de travail
     C. Méthodologie
Chapitre I – Le système de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme tel qu’il se présente aujourd’hui
     Le mécanisme de contrôle de la Convention
     Les effets des arrêts de la Cour
     La Convention dans le contexte plus large des travaux du Conseil de l’Europe
     L’évolution du système de la Convention
Chapitre II – L’autorité de la Convention : la mise en œuvre au niveau national
     A. Défis
     B. Réponses possibles dans le cadre des structures existantes
          L’effet des arrêts sur les Hautes Parties contractantes
          Sensibilisation/éducation
          Les recours internes
          Le processus législatif et le rôle des parlements nationaux
          Le rôle des structures nationales des droits de l’homme et de la société civile
          Le rôle du Conseil de l’Europe
     C. Réponses possibles en dehors du cadre des structures existantes
          L’effet des arrêts sur les Hautes Parties contractantes autres que l’Etat défendeur
          Les recours internes
          Le rôle des parlements nationaux
          Le rôle du Conseil de l’Europe
     D. Conclusions
Chapitre III – L’autorité de la Cour
     Section I – Le défi du volume d’affaires
     A. Réponses possibles dans le cadre des structures existantes
          Résorber l’arriéré
          L’afflux annuel d’affaires
          Maintenir la capacité de réviser les méthodes de travail pour répondre aux changements de circonstances
          Violations à grande échelle
          Questions systémiques
     B. Réponses possibles en dehors du cadre des structures existantes
     Section II – Le défi relatif à l’autorité de la jurisprudence
     A. Réponses possibles dans le cadre des structures existantes
          La qualité des juges
          La qualité du Greffe
          La qualité et la cohérence de la jurisprudence
          Des orientations interprétatives générales tout en maintenant le traitement individuel
          Les relations entre la Cour de Strasbourg et les juridictions nationales
     B. Réponses possibles en dehors du cadre des structures existantes
          La qualité des juges et du Greffe
          Renforcer la fonction interprétative tout en maintenant le traitement individuel
          Les relations entre la Cour de Strasbourg et les juridictions nationales
     Section III – Conclusions
Chapitre IV – L’autorité des arrêts de la Cour : l’exécution des arrêts et sa surveillance
     A. Défis
     B. Réponses possibles dans le cadre des structures existantes
          L’exécution des arrêts
          Surveillance de l’exécution des arrêts de la Cour
     C. Réponses possibles en dehors du cadre des structures existantes
          Exécution des arrêts de la Cour
          Surveillance de l’exécution des arrêts de la Cour
     D. Conclusions
Chapitre V – La place du mécanisme de la Convention dans l’ordre juridique européen et international
     A. Défis
          L’interaction entre la Convention et d’autres instruments du Conseil de l’Europe
          L’interaction entre la Convention et d’autres organisations régionales
          L’interaction entre la Convention et d’autres instruments internationaux des droits de l’hommeauxquels les Etats membres du Conseil de l’Europe sont parties
          L’interaction entre le droit des droits de l’homme et d’autres branches du droit international
     B. Réponses possibles dans le cadre des structures existantes
          L’interaction entre le mécanisme de la Convention et les organes des traités des Nations Unies
          Veiller à la compatibilité avec les obligations incombant aux Etats au titre d’autres traités et du droit international coutumier
          Assurer la cohérence avec l’ordre juridique de l’Union européenne
     C. Réponses possibles en dehors du cadre des structures existantes
          Veiller à la compatibilité avec les obligations incombant aux Etats au titre d’autres traités et du droit international coutumier
     D. Conclusions
Chapitre VI – Conclusions
Annexe – Liste des documents de référence

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