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PDF - Les dimensions linguistiques de toutes les matières scolaires - Guide pour l'élaboration des curriculums et pour la formation des enseignants (2016)

Language policy
978-92-871-8366-8
Type of document :
Book
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
2,067 MB
Number of pages :
146
Jean-Claude Beacco, Mike Fleming, Francis Goullier, Eike Thürmann, Helmut Vollmer, avec des contributions de Joseph Sheils
14.00 € / 28.00 $US

La maîtrise de la langue de scolarisation est essentielle pour développer chez les élèves les compétences nécessaires à la réussite scolaire et à la réflexion critique. Elle est fondamentale pour la participation à nos sociétés démocratiques, pour l’inclusion et la cohésion sociales.

Ce guide est un document politique et un instrument de travail qui prône la convergence et la cohérence entre les dimensions linguistiques des différentes matières scolaires.

Il propose des mesures pour rendre explicites – dans les programmes, le matériel pédagogique et la formation des enseignants – les normes et les compétences linguistiques que les élèves doivent maîtriser pour chaque discipline scolaire. Il mentionne également des modalités pédagogiques qui devraient permettre à tous les élèves, en particulier aux plus vulnérables, de participer à des expériences diversifiées d’apprentissage des langues, en vue de développer leurs capacités cognitives et linguistiques.

Préface
Introduction
Chapitre 1 : Importance des dimensions linguistiques de toutes les matières scolaires pour la qualité et l’équité dans l’éducation
     1.1. Langue de scolarisation – Utilisation de la langue académique
     1.2. Préparation à la société du savoir et transmission des compétences nécessaires
     1.3. Équité et qualité dans l’éducation
Chapitre 2 : Rôle de la langue dans la construction et l’utilisation des connaissances   
     2.1. Rôle de la langue dans la construction des connaissances
     2.2. Conventions de la communication des sciences, des techniques et des humanités
     2.3. Langue et scolarisation
     2.4. Compétences dans la « langue académique »
     2.5. Littératie spécifique aux matières
     2.6. Implications pour les pratiques d’enseignement
Chapitre 3 : Formes de communication en classe et acquisition des connaissances disciplinaires   
     3.1. Exposé de l’enseignant
     3.2. Exposé avec interactions dirigées (cours dialogué)
     3.3. Questionnement et débat
     3.4. Échanges entre élèves
     3.5. Prise de notes et résumé
     3.6. Exposé par un ou des élèves
     3.7. Lecture du manuel ou de textes authentiques
     3.8. Production de textes écrits
Chapitre 4 : Vers l’appropriation de l’expression scientifique
     4.1. Des objectifs pour différents niveaux du curriculum
     4.2. Des passerelles entre les genres
     4.3. Caractéristiques verbales de l’expression scientifique
Chapitre 5 : Diversité linguistique, littératie spécifique aux matières et résultats scolaires   
     5.1. Principes fondamentaux
     5.2. Écarts dans les résultats scolaires, littératie académique et avantages de l’apprentissage des langues fondé sur le contenu
     5.3. Dispositifs en faveur des apprenants non (ou très peu) compétents dans la principale langue de scolarisation
     5.4. Dispositifs favorisant l’acquisition de la littératie académique
     5.5. Éléments favorisant l’acquisition de compétences plurilingues
     5.6. Synthèse et perspectives
Chapitre 6 : Construction de la maîtrise de la langue de scolarisation au cycle primaire
     6.1. Intérêt de définir des objectifs linguistiques
     6.2. « Saut discursif » à l’entrée à l’école
     6.3. Des stratégies adaptées à l’enseignement primaire
Chapitre 7 : La langue comme matière
     7.1. Différentes approches de la langue comme matière
     7.2. Les dimensions de la langue comme matière
     7.3. Variétés linguistiques
     7.4. Implications pour les pratiques d’enseignement
Chapitre 8 : Prérequis linguistiques spécifiques aux matières dans l’enseignement secondaire
     8.1. Prise en compte des spécificités des matières et éducation aux langues
     8.2. Contribution des mathématiques à l’éducation aux langues
     8.3. Contribution des sciences à l’éducation aux langues
     8.4. Sciences humaines et sociales et prérequis linguistiques caractéristiques
     8.5. Rôle de l’étayage dans l’enseignement de contenus tenant compte de la dimension linguistique
     8.6. Défis
Chapitre 9 : Approches de l’enseignement
     9.1. Langue et apprentissages
     9.2. Approches de l’expression écrite
     9.3. Approches de la compréhension de l’écrit
     9.4. Approches de l’expression orale et de la compréhension de l’oral
     9.5. Culture éducative
Chapitre 10 : Élaboration du curriculum
     10.1. Diverses approches du curriculum
     10.2. Une approche axée sur les matières
     10.3. Élaboration d’un cadre générique en Norvège (niveau macro)
     10.4. Une approche structurelle de la conception du curriculum en Rhénanie-du-Nord-Westphalie (RNW)
     10.5. Typologie des procédures
Chapitre 11 : La dimension linguistique dans la formation initiale et continue des enseignants   
     11.1. Formation initiale et continue des enseignants au niveau supranational
     11.2. Formation initiale et continue des enseignants au niveau national
     11.3. Conseillers en langues et éducateurs spécialisés en littératies aux niveaux régional et local
     11.4. Stratégies ascendantes pour le développement de l’école et de la classe
Chapitre 12 : La qualité des formations relativement aux dimensions linguistiques des enseignements disciplinaires   
     12.1. La qualité globale des dispositifs de formation : critères globaux pour l’évaluation
     12.2. Qualité du curriculum et évaluation de sa mise en oeuvre
     12.3. Évaluation des acquis des apprenants
Conclusion
Annexes   
Annexe 1 – Recommandation CM/Rec(2014)5 du Comité des Ministres aux États membres sur l’importance de compétences en langue(s) de scolarisation pour l’équité et la qualité en éducation et pour la réussite scolaire
Annexe 2 – Références bibliographiques et indications pour des lectures complémentaires
Annexe 3 – Enseigner les matières dites « non linguistiques » en tenant compte de leur dimension linguistique : liste récapitulative

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