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PDF - Personnes disparues et victimes de disparition forcée en Europe (2016)

Commissioner for Human Rights
Format : PDF PDF
001416FRA
Type of document :
Document
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PDF
Language :
French
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1,21 MB
Number of pages :
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Commissaire aux droits de l'homme
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Des dizaines de milliers de personnes sont toujours portées disparues ou sont victimes de disparition forcée en Europe à cause de régimes répressifs ou de conflits passés ou en cours. Cette situation soulève de très graves questions sur le plan des droits de l’homme et de la prééminence du droit. Tous les Etats européens doivent donc considérer la recherche des personnes disparues comme leur priorité.Alors que le temps passe, des milliers d’Européens continuent de se battre pour savoir ce que sont devenus leurs proches et où ils se trouvent. Les familles de personnes disparues et de victimes directes de disparition forcée ont le droit de connaître la vérité. Elles doivent être placées au centre de toutes les actions, recevoir le soutien et l’assistance dont elles ont besoin et obtenir réparation.Ce document thématique donne un aperçu de la situation dans plusieurs Etats membres du Conseil de l’Europe. Il présente également les normes et mécanismes principaux, de portée internationale ou européenne, ainsi que les travaux du Comité des droits de l’homme des Nations Unies et de la Cour interaméricaine des droits de l’homme. Un chapitre est consacré à la jurisprudence pertinente de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme, ce qui permet de rappeler la nécessité, pour les Etats défendeurs, d’améliorer l’exécution des arrêts de la Cour. Le document décrit aussi la pratique des Etats européens et les difficultés qu’ils rencontrent, ainsi que des bonnes pratiques et des initiatives venant de différents pays du monde.Le Commissaire aux droits de l’homme formule un ensemble de recommandations pour aider les gouvernements à améliorer leur législation et leur pratique. Ces mesures portent sur les thèmes suivants : les victimes directes et leurs proches ; l’amélioration des procédures d’exhumation et d’identification ; le soutien aux mécanismes concernant les personnes disparues et les victimes de disparition forcée ; la formation des agents de la fonction publique ; les initiatives de recherche de la vérité ; l’accès aux informations et aux archives ; le renforcement de la législation interne ; l’efficacité des enquêtes et l’éradication de l’impunité ; enfin, la promotion et la mise en oeuvre des normes internationales et européennes pertinentes.

RÉSUMÉ
RECOMMANDATIONS DU COMMISSAIRE
CHAPITRE 1. INTRODUCTION - VUE D’ENSEMBLE DE LA SITUATION
1.1 Arménie, Azerbaïdjan et Géorgie
1.2 Balkans occidentaux
1.3 Chypre
1.4 Irlande du Nord
1.5 Fédération de Russie
1.6 Espagne
1.7 Turquie
1.8 Ukraine
1.9 Autres États membres du Conseil de l’Europe
CHAPITRE 2. NORMES ET MÉCANISMES MAJEURS, DE PORTÉE INTERNATIONALE OU EUROPÉENNE, CONCERNANT LES PERSONNES DISPARUES ET LES VICTIMES DE DISPARITION FORCÉE
2.1 Normes juridiques internationales
2.2 Normes européennes
2.3 Mécanismes internationaux concernant les personnes disparues et les victimes de disparition forcée
2.4 Rôle des associations de victimes et des ONG
CHAPITRE 3. JURISPRUDENCE DE LA COUR EUROPÉENNE DES DROITS DE L’HOMME
3.1 Règle des six mois
3.2 Droits de l’homme violés et obligations positives des États
3.3 Familles des personnes disparues
3.4 Disparitions forcées dans le contexte des restitutions extraordinaires et des extraditions
3.5 Mesures provisoires
3.6 Mesures de réparation
3.7 Exécution des arrêts de la Cour
CHAPITRE 4. PRATIQUE DES ÉTATS EUROPÉENS ET PRINCIPAUX DÉFIS LIÉS AUX PERSONNES DISPARUES ET AUX VICTIMES DE DISPARITION FORCÉE
4.1 Obstacles à la recherche des personnes disparues et des victimes de disparition
forcée, et au processus d’exhumation
4.2 Commissions vérité et réconciliation (CVR) nationales ou régionales
4.3 Écueils du droit interne
4.4 Obstacles à l’éradication de l’impunité des auteurs de disparition forcée
4.5 Absence de programme de réparation global pour les victimes
CHAPITRE 5. EXEMPLES DE BONNES PRATIQUES
5.1 Expériences concluantes en matière d’exhumation, de coopération, de recherche
de la vérité et d’ouverture des archives
5.2 Renforcement du cadre juridique et institutionnel national
5.3 Poursuites effectives et sanctions contre les responsables
CONCLUSIONS
NOTES

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