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Newsletter

epub - Lutter contre la ségrégation scolaire en Europe par l’éducation inclusive (2017)

Commissioner for Human Rights
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085417FRA_epub
Type of document :
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French
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Commissaire aux droits de l'homme
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Ségrégation scolaire : beaucoup d’enfants demeurent privés d’une éducation de qualité

La ségrégation scolaire – l’une des pires formes de discrimination – reste une triste réalité en Europe. Ses effets négatifs touchent particulièrement les enfants roms, les enfants handicapés, les enfants issus de l’immigration et d’autres enfants, selon leur situation sociale ou personnelle (comme les enfants placés en institution et les enfants qui ont maille à partir avec la justice des mineurs). Malgré l’existence de lois et de politiques antidiscrimination, la pratique consistant à séparer des groupes d’élèves dans des établissements ou des classes spécifiques est peut-être même en train de gagner du terrain, notamment sous l’effet de l’augmentation des arrivées de migrants et de réfugiés en Europe.

De nombreux États ont adopté des mesures importantes pour bâtir des systèmes éducatifs plus inclusifs et garantir le droit à l’éducation de tous les enfants, sans discrimination. Toutefois, dans la pratique, les autorités nationales et locales ne respectent pas toujours leurs obligations et cèdent souvent à différentes pressions exercées notamment par l’administration scolaire, le corps enseignant, d’autres professionnels et par les familles.

L’éducation inclusive ne devrait pas être perçue comme un projet utopique. Elle constitue au contraire un objectif atteignable, qui offre un énorme potentiel pour améliorer la cohésion sociale, les relations interculturelles et les possibilités d’éducation de tous les enfants.

INTRODUCTION
I. SÉGRÉGATION SCOLAIRE DANS LES ÉTATS MEMBRES DU CONSEIL DE L'EUROPE: ÉTAT DES LIEUX
     1. Aperçu de la ségrégation dans les États membres
     2. Principales causes de ségrégation
II. CONSÉQUENCES DE L’ENSEIGNEMENT SÉPARÉ
III. PRINCIPES AU COEUR D’UNE POLITIQUE D’ÉDUCATION INCLUSIVE
     1. Une conception élargie du droit à l’éducation
     2. Le droit à l’éducation et les droits dans le système éducatif
     3. L’éducation, une mission de service public
     4. Réglementer le choix de l’établissement
     5. Tous les enfants peuvent apprendre
IV. PROGRESSER VERS L’ÉDUCATION INCLUSIVE : CONCLUSIONS ET RECOMMANDATIONS
     1. Garantir une interdiction juridique complète de la discrimination
     2. Adopter une stratégie de déségrégation scolaire
     3. Sensibiliser à l’éducation inclusive
     4. Garantir une éducation de qualité dans tous les établissements scolaires
     5. Planifier l’offre éducative dans une perspective d’inclusion
     6. Réglementer et superviser les inscriptions
     7. Interdire le recours à des tests comme outil de sélection
     8. Évaluer les besoins des élèves
     9. Répartir équitablement les élèves appartenant à des groupes vulnérables
     10. Définir des secteurs scolaires favorisant la mixité sociale
     11. Affecter les meilleurs enseignants dans les établissements les plus difficiles
     12. Promouvoir l’implication des parents dans le système éducatif
ANNEXE – DOCUMENTS DE RÉFÉRENCE INTERNATIONAUX
     Organisations internationales
     Autres références

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epub - Lutter contre la ségrégation scolaire en Europe par l’éducation inclusive