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Catalog

Newsletter

Charte éthique européenne d’utilisation de l’intelligence artificielle dans les systèmes judiciaires et leur environnement (2019)

Computers and law
Format : PDF PDF
005519FRA
Type of document :
Document
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
2,05 MB
Number of pages :
84
Commission européenne pour l’efficacité de la justice (Cepej)
Free

La Commission européenne pour l’efficacité de la justice (Cepej) du Conseil de l’Europe a adopté, le 4 décembre 2018, le premier texte européen énonçant des principes éthiques relatifs à l’utilisation de l’intelligence artificielle (IA) dans les systèmes judiciaires

La Charte fournit un cadre de principes destinés à guider les décideurs publics, le législateur et les professionnels de la justice dans la gestion du développement rapide de l’intelligence artificielle dans les processus judiciaires nationaux.

Pour la Cepej, l’utilisation de l’intelligence artificielle dans le domaine de la justice peut contribuer à en améliorer l’efficacité et la qualité. Elle doit être mise en œuvre de manière responsable, en conformité avec les droits fondamentaux garantis notamment par la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme et la Convention du Conseil de l’Europe pour la protection des données à caractère personnel. Il est essentiel de garantir que l’intelligence artificielle reste un outil au service de l’intérêt général et que son utilisation se fasse dans le respect des droits individuels.

La Charte définit cinq principes essentiels à respecter en matière d’intelligence artificielle et justice: respect des droits fondamentaux; non-discrimination; qualité et sécurité; transparence, neutralité et intégrité intellectuelle; maîtrise par l’utilisateur. La Charte est accompagnée d’une étude approfondie sur l’utilisation de l’intelligence artificielle dans les systèmes judiciaires.

INTRODUCTION
LES 5 PRINCIPES DE LA CHARTE ÉTHIQUE D’UTILISATION DE L’INTELLIGENCE ARTIFICIELLE DANS LES SYSTÈMES JUDICIAIRES ET LEUR ENVIRONNEMENT
     1. Principe de respect des droits fondamentaux: Assurer une conception et une mise en oeuvre des outils et des services d’intelligence artificielle qui soient compatibles avec les droits fondamentaux
     2. Principe de non-discrimination: Prévenir spécifiquement la création ou le renforcement de discriminations entre individus ou groupes d’individus
     3. Principe de qualité et sécurité: En ce qui concerne le traitement des décisions juridictionnelles et des données judiciaires, utiliser des sources certifiées et des données intangibles avec des modèles conçus d’une manière multidisciplinaire, dans un environnement technologique sécurisé
     4. Principe de transparence, de neutralité et d’integrité intellectuelle: Rendre accessibles et compréhensibles les méthodologies de traitement des données, autoriser les audits externes
     5. Principe de maîtrise par l’utilisateur: Bannir une approche prescriptive et permettre à l’usager d’être un acteur éclairé et maître de ses choix
ANNEXE I – ETUDE APPROFONDIE SUR L’UTILISATION DE L’IA DANS LES SYSTÈMES JUDICIAIRES, NOTAMMENT LES APPLICATIONS D’IA ASSURANT LE TRAITEMENT DES DÉCISIONS ET DES DONNÉES JUDICIAIRES
     Introduction
     1. État des lieux de l’utilisation des algorithmes d’intelligence artificielle dans les systèmes judiciaires des États membres du Conseil de l’Europe
     2. État des lieux des politiques publiques d’open data des décisions judiciaires dans les systèmes judiciaires des États membres du Conseil de l’Europe
     3. Caractéristiques de fonctionnement de l’intelligence artificielle (apprentissage machine) appliquée aux décisions judiciaires
     4. Les intelligences artificielles peuvent-elles modéliser a priori un raisonnement juridique?
     5. Les IA peuvent-elles expliquer a posteriori le comportement des juges ?
     6. Quelles applications pour la justice civile, commerciale et administrative?
     7. Les enjeux spécifiques à la justice pénale: prévention des infractions, du risque de récidive et évaluation de la dangerosité
     8. Questions spécifiques relatives à la protection des données personnelles
     9. Les potentialités et les limites des outils de justice dite prédictive
     10. La nécessité d’un débat public approfondi autour de ces outils antérieurement à la mise en place des politiques publiques de développement de ceux-ci. L’impérieuse nécessité d’une cyberéthique pour encadrer le développement des algorithmes d’intelligence artificielle dans le respect des droits fondamentaux
ANNEXE II – QUELLES UTILISATIONS POUR L’IA DANS LES SYSTÈMES JUDICIAIRES EUROPÉENS ?
     Utilisations à encourager
     Utilisations à envisager avec de fortes précautions méthodologiques
     Utilisations à envisager au terme de travaux scientifiques complémentaires
     Utilisations à envisager avec les plus extrêmes réserves
ANNEXE III – GLOSSAIRE
ANNEXE IV – CHECKLIST D’INTÉGRATION DES PRINCIPES DE LA CHARTE DANS VOS TRAITEMENTS
CHECKLIST D’ÉVALUATION DE VOTRE TRAITEMENT