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PDF - Liste des critères de l'Etat de droit (2016)

Constitutional Law
089616FRA
Number of pages :
88
Commission de Venise
Free

Le principe de l’État de droit est consacré par les textes juridiques – aussi bien au niveau constitutionnel national qu’à celui du Conseil de l’Europe ou de l’Union européenne. L’État de droit est souvent invoqué dans le débat politique, d’autant plus facilement que son contenu n’est pas défini. Comment analyser s’il est mis en oeuvre de façon objective, minutieuse, transparente et égale ? C’est ce que vise la liste des critères élaborée par la Commission de Venise. Présentée sous forme de questions détaillées, elle permet une évaluation du degré de respect de l’État de droit dans un pays. Cette évaluation ne consiste pas à compter les bonnes réponses, mais doit s’effectuer de manière globale, tout en mettant l’accent sur le respect des critères les plus importants.

La liste des critères de l’État de droit est un outil à la disposition de toutes les parties prenantes, aussi bien les organisations internationales que les autorités nationales et la société civile.

Table des matières

I. Introduction
     A. Objet et portée
     B. L’Etat de droit dans un environnement favorable
II. Critères
     A. Légalité
          1. Primauté du droit
          2. Respect du droit
          3. Rapport entre le droit international et le droit interne
          4. Compétences législatives de l’exécutif
          5. Procédure législative
          6. Exceptions dans les situations d’urgence
          7. Devoir de mise en oeuvre de la loi
          8. Acteurs privés chargés de missions de service public
     B. Sécurité juridique
          1. Accessibilité de la loi
          2. Accessibilité des décisions de justice
          3. Prévisibilité de la loi
          4. Stabilité et cohérence du droit
          5. Attentes légitimes
          6. Non-rétroactivité
          7. Nullum crimen, nulla poena sine lege
          8. Force de chose jugée (res judicata)
     C. Prévention de l’abus de pouvoir
     D. Egalité devant la loi et non-discrimination
          1. Principe
          2. Non-discrimination
          3. Egalité dans la loi
          4. Egalité devant la loi
     E. Accès à la justice
          1. Indépendance et impartialité
          2. Procès équitable
          3. Justice constitutionnelle (le cas échéant)
     F. Exemples de défis spécifiques à l’Etat de droit
          1. Corruption et conflits d’intérêts
          2. Collecte des données et surveillance
III. Selection de normes
     III.a. Normes générales de l’Etat de droit
          1. Droit dur (Hard Law)
          2. Droit souple (Soft Law)
     III.b. Normes relatives aux critères
          A. Légalité
          B. Sécurité juridique
          C. Prévention de l’abus de pouvoir
          D. Egalité devant la loi et non-discrimination
          E. Accès à la justice
          F. Exemples de défis spécifiques à l’Etat de droit

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PDF - Liste des critères de l'Etat de droit