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Catalog

Newsletter

IRIS Plus 2021-2 - Les autorités de régulation des médias et les défis de la coopération (2022)

European Audiovisual Observatory
978-92-871-9181-6
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
French
Size :
A4
Number of pages :
88
Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel
11.00 € / 11.00 $US
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Ce rapport examine les défis actuels auxquels sont confrontées les autorités de régulation nationales (ARN) et tente d’établir comment la coopération entre ces dernières peut renforcer leur mission.

Les autorités de régulation nationales sont les garantes de la liberté d'expression et du pluralisme dans les médias audiovisuels et en ligne. Elles s'acquittent de leurs missions en interprétant et en appliquant des règles et en conciliant les intérêts, comme en témoignent leurs activités de régulation, de contrôle et de sanction. Par conséquent, compte tenu de leur importance, ces responsabilités fondamentales doivent être confiées à une institution qui ne cède devant personne, ni au gouvernement ni à tiers privés. En effet, ce n'est qu’à cette condition qu’il est possible de garantir que les décisions en matière de liberté et de pluralisme des médias, qui sont les deux piliers des systèmes démocratiques fondés sur l'État de droit, soient prises indépendamment de tout intérêt fallacieux et que les parties concernées par ces décisions, à savoir les radiodiffuseurs, les services de VoD, les fournisseurs de services vidéo, mais également les citoyens, puissent avoir pleinement confiance en elles.

Toutefois, comme le souligne un récent IRIS Spécial sur l'indépendance des autorités de régulation des médias en Europe1, l'indépendance formelle ou « de jure » ne coïncide pas toujours avec l'indépendance réelle ou « de facto ». En réalité, les autorités de régulation nationales ont été confrontées à des défis majeurs au cours des dernières années, notamment en raison de la complexification de l'écosystème des médias et des modifications réglementaires qui s’opèrent.

Cette publication offre une vue d’ensemble, en pleine mutation, des différents enjeux en présence et se veut le fruit d'une intense collaboration entre l'Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel et la Plateforme européenne des instances de régulation (EPRA).
1. Le contexte
1.1. Une image contrastée : l'hétérogénéité des autorités de régulation nationales des médias en Europe
1.2. Une diversité de structure et de ressources
1.3. Une diversité d’attributions et de compétences
1.4. La diversité des aspects du fonctionnement des ARN : indépendance et responsabilité
2. Le cadre juridique international
2.1. Le Conseil de l’Europe
2.2. L’Union européenne
2.2.1. La Directive Services de médias audiovisuels
2.2.2. La législation sur les services numériques
2.2.3. Les autres développements récents
3. Les exemples nationaux
3.1. CZ - La République tchèque
3.2. FR - La France
3.3. GB - Le Royaume-Uni
3.4. GR - La Grèce
3.5. IE - L’Irlande
3.6. LU - Le Luxembourg
3.7. SE - La Suède
4. Les réseaux des autorités de régulation des médias
4.1. Les réseaux de coopération européens
4.1.1. L’ERGA
4.1.2. La Plateforme européenne des instances de régulation (EPRA)
4.2. Les autres plateformes à vocation culturelle et linguistique
4.2.1. Le Réseau des instances de régulation méditerranéennes (RIRM)
4.2.2. Le Réseau des instances francophones de régulation des médias (REFRAM)
4.2.3. Les forums de discussion régionaux informels
4.2.4. La coopération baltique
4.2.5. La coopération nordique
4.2.6. Les réunions tripartites entre la France, l’Allemagne et le Royaume-Uni
5. La coopération intersectorielle
5.1. Les nouvelles formes de préjudices, les interactions politiques et la nécessité d'une coopération réglementaire intersectorielle
5.2. Un élément déterminant : l’élaboration de modèles de coopération efficaces
5.3. Des modèles de coopération et de contrôle intersectoriels différents aux niveaux national et européen
6. État des lieux
6.1. Les difficultés communes des ARN des médias en Europe
6.1.1. L'évolution de l'écosystème des médias
6.1.2. La nature changeante de la régulation
6.1.3. L'évolution des relations avec les citoyens
6.2. Conclusions