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Catalog

Newsletter

IRIS Special 2021-2: Transparenz von Medieneigentum (2022)

European Audiovisual Observatory
978-92-871-9185-4
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
German
Size :
A4
Number of pages :
146
Europäische Audiovisuelle Informationsstelle
11.00 € / 11.00 $US
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Diese Veröffentlichung befasst sich vor allem mit der Frage, wie Transparenz von Medieneigentum in Europa geregelt wird.

Massenmedien wird in der Regel eine Wächterfunktion zugeschrieben. Das heißt, sie recherchieren, überprüfen Fakten, hinterfragen Zusammenhänge, um anschließend gesicherte Informationen zu veröffentlichen, die die Reichen und Mächtigen zur Rechenschaft ziehen. Darüber hinaus haben Massenmedien, um es mit den Worten von John Reith zu sagen, dem General Manager der BBC von 1922 bis 1939, auch eine Erziehungsfunktion, und außerdem sollen sie die Menschen auch noch unterhalten. All das sind unverzichtbare Funktionen in unserer heutigen „bildschirmbesessenen“ Gesellschaft.

Aber wer überwacht die Wächter? Das ist eine Frage, die sich bereits der römische Dichter Juvenal in seinen Satiren gestellt hat und die inzwischen zu einem geflügelten Wort geworden ist- quis custodiet ipsos custodes. Oder anders gesagt: Wer hält die Medien davon ab, ihre Macht zu missbrauchen? Die Antwort auf diese Frage könnte sein: die Zivilgesellschaft, Regulierungsbehörden und in letzter Instanz die Gerichte. Allerdings ist es ein wenig schwierig, die Wächter zu überwachen, wenn man gar nicht weiß, wer die Wächter sind. Wer sind die Personen, natürliche oder juristische, die hinter den Medien stehen? Wer entscheidet wirklich über die redaktionelle Linie einer Zeitung? Wenn wir davon überzeugt sind, dass ein ungesundes Niveau an Medienkonzentration eine Gefahr für die Demokratie und die Freiheit der Meinungsäußerung ist, dann ist Transparenz von Medieneigentum unverzichtbar für unsere Gesellschaften.
1. Einführung
2. Regeln zur Transparenz von Medieneigentum im Lichte des EU-Primärrechts
2.1. Einleitung
2.2. Transparenz als EU-Verfassungsprinzip?
2.3. Art. 345 AEUV und Transparenzregeln
2.4. Der Einfluss von Transparenzregeln auf die EU-Wettbewerbspolitik
2.5. Der Einfluss von Transparenzregeln auf die EU-Grundfreiheiten
2.6. Transparenzregeln und EU-Grundrechte
2.7. Transparenz als Instrument zur Sicherung der Medienvielfalt
2.8. Fazit
3. Regeln zur Transparenz von Medieneigentum im Sekundärrecht
3.1. Die AVMD-Richtlinie
3.2. Transparenz in weiteren Bestimmungen auf Ebene des Sekundärrechts und der Selbstregulierung
3.2.1. EU-Geldwäscherichtlinie
3.2.2. Transparenzbestimmungen im medienrelevanten Sekundärrecht und in der Selbstregulierung
3.2.3. Transparenz für die Zukunft im Bereich KI und im Paket über digitale Dienste
4. Initiativen zur Transparenz von Medieneigentum
4.1. Europarat
4.2. Existierende Datenbanken und Initiativen der Zivilgesellschaft
5. Länderberichte
5.1. CH - Schweiz
5.2. DE - Deutschland
5.3. ES - Spanien
5.4. FR - Frankreich
5.5. GB - Vereinigtes Königreich
5.6. IE - Irland .
5.7. IT - Italien
5.8. PL - Polen
5.9. RU - Russische Föderation
6. Vergleichende Analyse
6.1. Einleitung
6.2. Transparenz von Medieneigentum im Verfassungsrecht
6.3. Transparenzregeln in Bezug auf das Medieneigentum im innerstaatlichen Recht
6.3.1. Regelungsadressaten
6.3.2. Anwendungsbereich und Inhalt der Regeln
6.3.3. Methoden der Offenlegung
6.3.4. Überwachung und Beaufsichtigung der Regeln
6.3.5. Sanktionen und rechtliche Konsequenzen
6.4. Ausblick
7. Schlussfolgerungen