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Catalog

Newsletter

IRIS Spécial 2021-2: La transparence en matière de propriété des médias (2022)

European Audiovisual Observatory
978-92-871-9184-7
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
French
Size :
A4
Number of pages :
150
Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel
11.00 € / 11.00 $US
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Une publication qui vise à clarifier la manière dont la transparence de la propriété des médias est réglementée en Europe.

On dit souvent que les médias de masse jouent le rôle de gardien, c’est-à-dire qu’ils enquêtent, vérifient les faits, interrogent, en vue de publier des informations soigneusement préparées qui mettent les riches et les puissants devant leurs responsabilités. Outre ce rôle de gardien, pour reprendre les mots de John Reith, directeur général de la BBC de 1922 à 1939, les médias jouent également un rôle d’éducation et de divertissement du public. Toutes ces fonctions sont fondamentales dans la société actuelle, focalisée sur les écrans.

À l’instar du poète romain Juvénal, nous pourrions nous poser la question suivante : quis custodiet ipsos custodes, ce qui se traduit par : qui assure la garde des gardiens eux-mêmes ? En d’autres termes : qui empêche les médias d’utiliser leur position prédominante à des fins pernicieuses ? La réponse à cette question pourrait être « la société civile, les autorités de régulation et, en dernier ressort, les tribunaux. » Néanmoins, il est difficile de surveiller des gardiens quand on ne sait pas qui ils sont vraiment. Quelles sont les personnes, physiques ou morales, qui possèdent les médias ? Qui sont les véritables décideurs en ce qui concerne, par exemple, la ligne éditoriale d’une rédaction ? Si nous convenons notamment qu’un excès de concentration des médias est un risque pour la démocratie et la liberté d’expression, alors la transparence de la propriété des médias s’avère fondamentale pour nos sociétés.
1. Introduction
2. Les règles de transparence en matière de propriété des médias au regard du droit primaire de l’UE
2.1. Introduction
2.2. La transparence, un principe constitutionnel de l’UE ?
2.3. L’article 345 du TFUE et les règles de transparence
2.4. Impact des règles de transparence sur la politique de l’UE en matière de concurrence
2.5. Impact des règles de transparence sur les libertés fondamentale de l’UE
2.6. Règles de transparence et droits fondamentaux de l’UE
2.7. La transparence, un outil de garantie du pluralisme des médias
2.8. Conclusion
3. Les règles de transparence en matière de propriété des médias au regard du droit dérivé de l’UE
3.1. La Directive SMA
3.2. La transparence au regard des autres dispositions du droit dérivé et de l’autorégulation
3.2.1. Directive européenne sur le blanchiment de capitaux
3.2.2. Dispositions relatives à la transparence dans le droit dérivé en matière de médias et dans le cadre de l’autorégulation
3.2.3. Perspectives en matière de transparence dans le domaine de l’IA et dans la législation sur les services numériques
4. Initiatives visant à renforcer la transparence des structures de propriété des médias
4.1. Conseil de l’Europe
4.2. Bases de données existantes et initiatives de la société civile
5. Rapports nationaux
5.1. CH -Suisse
5.2. DE - Allemagne
5.3. ES -Espagne
5.4. FR- France
5.5. GB – Royaume Uni
5.6. IE - Irlande
5.7. IT - Italie
5.8. PL - Pologne
5.9. RU - Fédération de Russie
6. Analyse comparative
6.1. Introduction
6.2. La transparence de la propriété des médias en droit constitutionnel
6.3. Règles de transparence en matière de propriété des médias dans le droit national
6.3.1. Public concerné par la réglementation
6.3.2. Champ d’application et contenu des règles
6.3.3. Modalités de divulgation
6.3.4. Suivi et contrôle des règles
6.3.5. Sanctions et conséquences juridiques
6.4. Perspectives
7. Conclusions