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Catalog

Newsletter

IRIS Spécial 2020-2: L'intelligence artificielle dans le secteur audiovisuel (2020)

  • Online only
European Audiovisual Observatory
978-92-871-8805-2
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
French
Size :
A4
Number of pages :
216
Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel
11.00 € / 11.00 $US
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Dans l’industrie audiovisuelle, comme dans d’autres secteurs, le recours croissant à l’IA devrait annoncer un changement de paradigme, car elle peut transformer la chaîne de valeur dans son ensemble. Ce nouveau rapport examine les opportunités et les défis soulevés par l’IA dans le secteur.
1. Intelligence artificielle et explicabilité
1.1. Qu’est-ce que l’intelligence artificielle ?
1.1.1. Une brève histoire de l’intelligence artificielle
1.1.2. Des approches différentes de l’intelligence artificielle
1.1.3. Applications de l’intelligence artificielle
1.2. Qu’est-ce que l’intelligence artificielle explicable ?
1.2.1. Motivations de l’IA
1.2.2. Les dimensions de l’interprétabilité
1.2.3. Comment lire les différentes explications
1.3. IA et IA explicable dans le domaine des médias
1.3.1. Applications d’IA et explicabilité
1.3.2. Les services de vidéo à la demande en pratique
1.4. Conclusion
2. Les données massives ou la matière dont sont faits les rêves de l’IA
2.1. Introduction
2.2. Le respect de la vie privée comme gardien des données massives
2.2.1. Les États-Unis d’Amérique
2.2.2. L’Union européenne
2.2.3. La Chine
2.2.4. Trois approches différentes ?
2.3. Biais et discrimination des données massives
2.4. Informer le public : médias, désinformation et contenu illégal
2.5. La politique des données massives et la bulle politique
2.6. Les médias, chiens de garde de la surveillance ?
2.7. Le marché des médias : des stratégies de marché dirigées par les données massives
2.8. Approches réglementaires des systèmes basés sur l’IA
2.9. Conclusion
3. Les conséquences du recours à l’intelligence artificielle par les médias d’information sur la liberté d’expression
3.1. Introduction
3.2. Les applications de l’IA au service des médias d’information
3.3. Le recours à l’IA par les médias d’information comme élément de la liberté des médias
3.3.1. Rôle démocratique des médias d'information
3.3.2. Bénéficiaires de la liberté des médias
3.3.3. Devoirs et obligations et codes de déontologie journalistique
3.4. Conséquences de l’IA pour les droits à la liberté d’expression des utilisateurs d’information et des autres participants au débat public
3.5. Obligations des États relatives à la liberté des médias
3.6. Conclusion
4. Les politiques de diversité culturelle à l’ère de l’IA
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Comprendre l’environnement modifié de la création de contenu, de sa distribution, de son utilisation et de sa réutilisation
4.2.1. Comprendre les nouveaux intermédiaires
4.2.2. Implications d’agents éditoriaux dirigés par l’IA
4.3. Pistes d’action possibles : de nouveaux outils pour aborder et impliquer les intermédiaires numériques
4.3.1. La gouvernance des algorithmes
4.3.2. La gouvernance par le biais des algorithmes
4.4. Observations finales
5. Droit d’auteur : la machine est-elle un auteur ?
5.1. Introduction
5.2. Technologie
5.3. Protection : la créativité artificielle peut-elle être protégée ?
5.3.1. Personnalité : une machine peut-elle être une personne morale ?
5.3.2. Paternité : une machine peut-elle être un auteur ?
5.3.3. Originalité : une machine peut-elle être originale ?
5.4. Options politiques : des incitations sont-elles nécessaires ?
5.4.1. Absence de protection : les oeuvres créées par IA dans le domaine public
5.4.2. Paternité et fictions juridiques : l’auteur doit-il être un humain ?
5.4.3. Un robot est-il l’auteur ?
5.4.4. Une protection sui generis pour la créativité artificielle
5.4.5. Accorder des droits aux éditeurs et aux diffuseurs
5.5. Conclusion
6. L'intelligence artificielle dans la publicité est-elle en train de devenir un univers sans foi ni loi ou les données sont-elles utilisées à bon escient?
6.1. Introduction
6.2. L’intelligence artificielle dans la publicité : du traçage de la navigation en ligne à la rédaction de scénarios publicitaires
6.2.1. La publicité programmatique : la bourse aux publicités et aux données
6.2.2. La créativité algorithmique : l’intelligence artificielle au service de l’imagination
6.2.3. Des jeux créatifs aux gains
6.2.4. Conclusion: la publicité intelligente grâce à l’intelligence artificielle
6.3. Les inquiétudes concernant les données massives (Big Data) et l’intelligence artificielle
6.3.1. Le cadre juridique en vigueur en Europe
6.3.2. Conclusion : (essentiellement) le Bon, la Brute et le Truand
6.4. L’utilisation de l’intelligence artificielle pour une régulation intelligente de la publicité
6.4.1. Les avatars collectent des données à bon escient
6.4.2. Les progrès de l’intelligence artificielle en matière de conformité publicitaire en France
6.4.3. Tirer parti de la technologie pour renforcer la confiance du marché publicitaire néerlandais
6.4.4. Les solutions technologiques des géants de l’industrie publicitaire
6.4.5. La future limite de l’autorégulation de la publicité
6.5. Conclusion : « La grande ruée vers les données »
6.6. Remerciements
6.7. Liste des personnes interviewées
7. Droits de la personnalité : d’Hollywood aux deepfakes
7.1. Introduction
7.2. L’IA plante le décor : deepfakes et acteurs fantômes
7.2.1. Deepfakes
7.2.2. Acteurs fantômes
7.3. Les droits de la personnalité et leurs implications
7.3.1. Angle 1 : L’image comme propriété (intellectuelle)
7.3.2. Angle 2 : Image et reconnaissance de la marque
7.3.3. Angle 3 : Protections du droit à la vie privée
7.3.4. Angle 4 : La dignité et les droits voisins
7.4. Législation dans différents pays
7.4.1. Allemagne
7.4.2. France
7.4.3. Suède
7.4.4. Guernesey
7.4.5. Royaume-Uni
7.4.6. Californie
7.5. Quel avenir pour le secteur audiovisuel européen ?
8. Approches pour un cadre réglementaire durable pour les industries audiovisuelles en Europe
8.1. Introduction
8.1.1. Les bases, simplifiées, de l’IA
8.2. Comment l’IA est-elle utilisée dans les industries audiovisuelles ?
8.3. L’IA est-elle différente des technologies précédentes ?
8.3.1. Qui est responsable lorsque l’IA cause un préjudice ?
8.3.2. Ce n’est pas qu’une question d’économie
8.4. Nous avons l’obligation morale de faire le bien avec l’IA
8.5. La réglementation doit être centrée sur l’homme et fondée sur des objectifs
8.5.1. Les risques majeurs devraient être pris en compte
8.5.2. Les humains sont les responsables
8.5.3. La transparence comme solution provisoire ?
8.6. Centré sur l’humain, et non sur la technologie

Illustrations
Illustration 1. Exemple d’explication globale par arborescence décisionnelle obtenue avec TREPAN
Illustration 2. Exemple d’explication sous forme de liste de règles obtenue avec CORELS
Illustration 3. Exemple d’explication à base de règles factuelles et contrefactuelles obtenue avec LORE
Illustration 4. Exemple d’explication basée sur l’importance des caractéristiques obtenue avec LIME
Illustration 5. Exemple d’explication basée sur l’importance des caractéristiques obtenue avec SHAP
Illustration 6. Exemple de cartes de saillance obtenues par différentes méthodes explicatives. La première colonne montre l’image analysée et le label assigné par le modèle à boîte noire b du système d’IA.
Illustration 7. Exemple d’explication par exemples (gauche) et contre-exemples (droite) obtenue avec ABELE. Au-dessus de chaque (contre-)exemple figure le label attribué par le modèle à boîte noire b du système d’IA.

Tableaux
Tableau 1. Glossaire de la publicité programmatique
Tableau 2. Campagnes de publicité et de marketing optimisées par les technologies créatives de l’intelligence artificielle