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Catalog

Newsletter

Instruments juridiques pour lutter contre le racisme sur internet (2009)

Root
978-92-871-6539-8
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
French
Size :
16 x 24 cm
Number of pages :
179
25.00 € / 50.00 $US
Divers instruments juridiques aux niveaux national et international répriment le discours de haine. Cependant, la nature spécifique de l'internet requiert l'adoption de nouvelles stratégies en matière de lutte contre les discours de haine raciale et de violence diffusés largement et rapidement sur le web.Ignorant les territoires et les frontières, internet ne permet pas aux Etats d'assurer un contrôle efficace par l'application d'une réglementation nationale unilatéral, et implique de ce fait une coopération croissante au niveau international. Les efforts d'harmonisation des législations nationales - dont le Protocole additionnel à la Convention du Conseil de l'Europe sur la cybercriminalité - se heurtent à de nombreuses difficultés. L'une d'elles est qu'il n'existe pas de définition universellement reconnue du caractère illicite d'un discours à contenu raciste, qui peut être protégé par le droit à la liberté d'expression.Cet ouvrage présente la situation dans dix pays membres et observateurs du Conseil de l'Europe. II étudie les problèmes et les solutions mises en oeuvre par les Etats, les instances européennes et internationales ainsi que la société civile.

Introduction 

Mandat 
Champ d'étude 
Démarche 
Avertissement 

I. Internet: l'environnement technique et juridique 
 1.1. Les caractéristiques du réseau des réseaux: polycentrisme, ubiquité, clandestinité, fugacité 
 1.2. Les services offerts 
 1.3. Les acteurs 
  1.3.1. Les fournisseurs de contenants 
  1.3.2. Les fournisseurs de contenus 
  1.3.3. Les relayeurs d'information 

II. Questions juridiques soulevées lors des enquêtes menées par les organes de répression et d'instruction 
 2.1. Compétence: le vaste ressort territorial 
  2.1.1. Compétence pénale 
  2.1.2. Compétence civile 
 2.2. L'existence de Data Havens (zones refuges) et, en particulier, la liberté d'expression aux Etats-Unis 
  2.2.1. Législation fédérale 
  2.2.2. Législation des Etats 
 2.3. Les fondements juridiques des enquêtes et des saisies 
 2.4. Obstacles relevant du droit des médias empêchant de tenir quelqu'un pour responsable d'un contenu raciste 
 2.5. Obstacles liés à la législation relative à la protection des données 
 2.6. Problèmes liés à la coopération des autorités de police des différents pays 

III. La responsabilité des divers intervenants sur internet 
 Introduction 
 3.1. La responsabilité de l'auteur 
  3.1.1. Les limites de la responsabilité pénale: difficultés d'identification de l'auteur 
  3.1.2. Responsabilité civile de l'«auteur» 
 3.2. A intervenants différents, responsabilités différenciées 
  3.2.1. La responsabilité des relais 
  3.2.2. La responsabilité du fournisseur d'hébergement 
  3.2.3. La responsabilité du fournisseur d'accès 
 3.3. Les solutions législatives et travaux en cours 
  3.3.1. La législation 
  3.3.2. Les travaux en cours 
  3.3.3. Le cas particulier de l'Union européenne et des Etats-Unis 
 3.4. Les lois sur la presse/responsabilité pénale 

IV. La situation au regard du droit international public 
 4.1. Textes énonçant des obligations juridiques 
 4.2. Pratique des Etats en ce qui concerne l'Article 4 de la Convention internationale sur l'élimination de toutes les formes de discrimination raciale (CIEDR) 
 4.3. Avis des organes et juristes spécialisés 
 4.4. Aperçu de la Convention sur la cybercriminalité 
 4.5. Aperçu du Protocole additionnel à la convention sur la cybercriminalité 
 4.6. Conclusion 

V. «Soft law» 
 5.1. Instruments de «soft law» 
  5.1.1. Nétiquette 
  5.1.2. Codes de conduite - Mécanisme d'autoréglementation 
  5.1.3. Conditions générales des fournisseurs 
  5.1.4. Comités d'enregistrement et lignes d'urgence gouvernementaux 
  5.1.5. Instruments de dépistage de contenus illicites: filtrage, classement, labélisation 
 5.2. Approche européenne 
  5.2.1. Plan d'action sur l'utilisation plus sûre d'internet 
  5.2.2. EuroISPA 
 5.3. Application des instruments de «soft law» par les fournisseurs internet et les ONG 
  5.3.1. Autriche 
  5.3.2. Pays-Bas 
  5.3.3. Allemagne 
  5.3.4. France 
  5.3.5. Belgique 
  5.3.6. Royaume-Uni 
  5.3.7. Italie 
 5.4. Application des instruments de «soft law» par les organes de l'Etat 
  5.4.1. Suisse 
  5.4.2. Suède 

VI. Conclusion 

Annexe 1:  Recommandation de politique générale n° 6 de l'Ecri: La lutte contre la diffusion de matériels racistes, xénophobes et antisémites par l'internet 

Annexe 2: Protocole additionnel à la Convention sur la cybercriminalité, relatif à l'incrimination d'actes de nature raciste et xénophobe commis par le biais de systèmes informatiques 


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Instruments juridiques pour lutter contre le racisme sur internet