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PDF - Le droit de quitter un pays (2013)

Commissioner for Human Rights
Format : PDF PDF
151313FRA
Type of document :
Document
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
3 MB
Number of pages :
72
Commissaire aux droits de l’homme du Conseil de l’Europe
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Le droit de quitter un pays, y compris le sien, est une condition préalable nécessaire à la jouissance de plusieurs autres droits de l’homme, dont le droit de demander l’asile et d’en bénéficier, et le droit à la protection contre les mauvais traitements. Les Etats sont habilités à apporter des restrictions à l’exercice du droit de quitter un pays, mais uniquement si elles sont compatibles avec la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme et la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme.

Plusieurs mesures prises ou envisagées ces dernières années par des Etats membres du Conseil de l’Europe situés dans les Balkans occidentaux compromettent gravement l’exercice du droit de quitter un pays, consacré par le Protocole n° 4 à la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, ainsi que du droit de demander l’asile et d’en bénéficier. Cette situation préoccupe tout particulièrement le Commissaire aux droits de l’homme du Conseil de l’Europe car ces mesures restrictives sont adoptées à l’instigation d’Etats membres de l’Union européenne, qui entendent mettre ainsi en œuvre leurs politiques d’immigration et de contrôle des frontières. Ces mesures ont aussi une dimension discriminatoire puisque, en pratique, elles visent et pénalisent les Roms.

Ce document thématique examine le droit de quitter un pays et sa signification, en analysant comment ce droit est inscrit dans les instruments internationaux consacrés aux droits de l’homme et comment il est interprété par les cours européennes et par les organes conventionnels de l’Onu. Six thèmes majeurs sont traités : le droit de quitter un pays, y compris le sien ; le droit de demander l’asile et d’en bénéficier ; le droit des non-ressortissants de quitter un pays ; l’interdiction de la discrimination dans l’exercice du droit de quitter un pays ; la situation dans les Balkans occidentaux ; et les effets de l’externalisation par l’Union européenne des politiques de contrôle des frontières sur le droit de quitter un pays. Dans les conclusions, l’accent est mis sur la nécessité, pour les Etats européens, d’examiner ou de réexaminer leurs lois et politiques migratoires pour les rendre pleinement compatibles avec la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme et la jurisprudence de la Cour.

Résumé
Introduction
Partie 1 – Droit de quitter un pays, y compris le sien
   Les instruments de l'ONU relatifs aux droits de l’homme
   La Convention européenne des droits de l’homme
   Aperçu de la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme concernant le droit de quitter son pays
   Jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme concernant les restrictions à la liberté de circulation interne
   Jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme concernant les interdictions de voyager et les lois relatives à l’immigration de pays
étrangers
   Le droit de tous les citoyens de l’Union européenne à la liberté de circulation
   Conclusion
Partie 2 – Droit de demander l’asile et d’en bénéficier
   Le cadre international
   Le cadre européen des droits de l’homme
   Conclusion
Partie 3 – Droit, pour les non-ressortissants, de quitter un pays dont ils sont des résidents ou dans lequel ils se trouvent
   Le cadre des Nations Unies
   Le cadre européen
   Conclusion
Partie 4 – Interdiction de la discrimination en ce qui concerne le droit de quitter un pays
Partie 5 – Situation dans les Balkans occidentaux
Partie 6 – Effets de l’externalisation par l’Union européenne des politiques de contrôle des frontières sur le droit de quitter un pays
   Visas
   Sanctions contre les transporteurs
   Accords de réadmission
   Refoulements
   Conclusion
Conclusions générales

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