Array ( [id] => 2 [link] => [name] => [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 6 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/6-online-bookshop [name] => Online Bookshop [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 40 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/40-committee-of-ministers [name] => Committee of Ministers [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 41 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/41-texts-of-council-of-europe-treaties [name] => Texts of Council of Europe Treaties [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 43 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/43-council-of-europe-treaties-and-explanatory-reports [name] => Council of Europe Treaties and explanatory reports [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 44 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/44-collected-edition-of-the-council-of-europe-treaties-series [name] => Collected edition of the Council of Europe Treaties Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 45 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/45-committee-of-ministers-compendium-of-adopted-texts [name] => Committee of Ministers - Compendium of adopted texts [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 42 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/42-committee-of-ministers-other-publications [name] => Committee of Ministers - Other publications [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 46 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/46-parliamentary-assembly [name] => Parliamentary Assembly [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 47 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/47-parliamentary-assembly-adopted-texts [name] => Parliamentary Assembly / Adopted texts [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 48 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/48-parliamentary-assembly-orders-of-the-day-minutes [name] => Parliamentary Assembly / Orders of the Day, Minutes [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 49 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/49-parliamentary-assembly-official-reports-of-debates [name] => Parliamentary Assembly / Official Reports of Debates [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 50 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/50-parliamentary-assembly-documents-working-papers [name] => Parliamentary Assembly / Documents, Working Papers [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 51 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/51-parliamentary-assembly-general-publications [name] => Parliamentary Assembly / General publications [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 52 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/52-congress [name] => Congress [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 53 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/53-congress-local-and-regional-action-series [name] => Congress / Local and Regional Action Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 54 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/54-congress-studies-and-texts-series [name] => Congress/ Studies and Texts Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 55 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/55-congress-adopted-texts [name] => Congress / Adopted Texts [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 56 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/56-congress-official-report-of-debates [name] => Congress / Official Report of Debates [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 57 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/57-human-rights [name] => Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 58 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/58-human-rights-and-democracy [name] => Human Rights and Democracy [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 59 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/59-children-s-rights-and-family-law [name] => Children's rights and family law [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 60 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/60-making-democratic-institutions-work [name] => Making democratic institutions work [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 61 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/61-minorities [name] => Minorities [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 62 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/62-human-rights-files [name] => Human Rights Files [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 63 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/63-european-social-charter [name] => European Social Charter [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 64 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/64-social-charter-monographs [name] => Social Charter Monographs [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [7] => Array ( [id] => 65 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/65-gender-equality [name] => Gender equality [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [8] => Array ( [id] => 66 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/66-european-court-of-human-rights [name] => European Court of Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [9] => Array ( [id] => 376 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/376-commissioner-for-human-rights [name] => Commissioner for Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [10] => Array ( [id] => 67 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/67-european-commission-of-human-rights [name] => European Commission of Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 68 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/68-law [name] => Law [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 71 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/71-international-law [name] => International Law [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 75 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/75-constitutional-law [name] => Constitutional Law [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 77 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/77-legal-instruments [name] => Legal instruments [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 76 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/76-penal-law-and-criminology [name] => Penal Law and criminology [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 79 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/79-computers-and-law [name] => Computers and law [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 74 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/74-economy-and-crime-fight-against-corruption [name] => Economy and crime, fight against corruption [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 72 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/72-terrorism-and-law [name] => Terrorism and Law [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [7] => Array ( [id] => 69 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/69-points-of-view-points-of-law [name] => Points of view - Points of Law [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [8] => Array ( [id] => 70 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/70-europeans-and-their-rights [name] => Europeans and their rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [9] => Array ( [id] => 73 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/73-migrants-rights [name] => Migrants rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [10] => Array ( [id] => 78 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/78-themis-programme [name] => Themis Programme [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 80 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/80-health [name] => Health [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 81 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/81-health-and-society-ethics [name] => Health and society, Ethics [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 82 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/82-blood-transfusion-and-organ-transplantation [name] => Blood transfusion and organ transplantation [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 83 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/83-health-protection-of-the-consumer [name] => Health protection of the consumer [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 84 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/84-integration-of-people-with-disabilities [name] => Integration of people with disabilities [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 85 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/85-european-directorate-for-the-quality-of-medicines-and-healthcare-edqm [name] => European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines and HealthCare (EDQM) [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 86 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/86-society [name] => Society [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 87 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/87-demography [name] => Demography [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 88 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/88-trends-in-social-cohesion-series [name] => Trends in Social Cohesion Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 89 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/89-responses-to-violence-in-everyday-life-in-a-democratic-society-series [name] => Responses to violence in everyday life in a democratic society Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 90 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/90-drugs-and-addiction [name] => Drugs and addiction [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 91 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/91-social-security [name] => Social Security [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 92 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/92-community-relations [name] => Community relations [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 93 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/93-social-co-operation-in-europe [name] => Social co-operation in Europe [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [7] => Array ( [id] => 94 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/94-population-studies-series [name] => Population Studies Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [7] => Array ( [id] => 95 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/95-environment [name] => Environment [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 96 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/96-nature-and-environment-series [name] => Nature and environment Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 97 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/97-environmental-encounters-series [name] => Environmental Encounters Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 98 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/98-territory-and-landscape-series [name] => Territory and Landscape Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 99 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/99-european-regional-planning-series [name] => European Regional Planning Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 100 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/100-environment-general-publications [name] => Environment / General publications [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [8] => Array ( [id] => 101 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/101-local-and-regional-democracy [name] => Local and Regional Democracy [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 102 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/102-co-operation-for-local-and-regional-democracy [name] => Co-operation for Local and Regional Democracy [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 103 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/103-local-and-regional-authorities-in-europe-series [name] => Local and Regional Authorities in Europe Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 104 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/104-structure-and-operation-of-local-and-regional-democracy-series [name] => Structure and operation of Local and Regional Democracy Series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [9] => Array ( [id] => 105 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/105-education [name] => Education [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 406 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/406-education-policy [name] => Education policy [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 108 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/108-human-rights-democratic-citizenship-and-interculturalism [name] => Human rights, democratic citizenship and interculturalism [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 112 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/112-higher-education-and-research [name] => Higher education and research [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 110 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/110-secondary-education [name] => Secondary education [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 107 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/107-history-teaching [name] => History teaching [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 106 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/106-pestalozzi-series [name] => Pestalozzi series [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [10] => Array ( [id] => 113 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/113-languages [name] => Languages [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 114 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/114-education-and-modern-languages [name] => Education and modern languages [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 115 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/115-language-policy [name] => Language policy [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 116 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/116-regional-and-minority-languages [name] => Regional and minority languages [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 117 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/117-terminology [name] => Terminology [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [11] => Array ( [id] => 118 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/118-youth [name] => Youth [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 119 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/119-training-kits-youth [name] => Training Kits / Youth [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 120 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/120-national-youth-policies [name] => National Youth Policies [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 121 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/121-youth-other-publications [name] => Youth / Other publications [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 396 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/396-perspectives-on-youth [name] => Perspectives on youth [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [12] => Array ( [id] => 122 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/122-culture [name] => Culture [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 123 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/123-cultural-development [name] => Cultural development [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 124 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/124-cultural-heritage [name] => Cultural heritage [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 125 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/125-cultural-policies [name] => Cultural Policies [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 126 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/126-culture-and-neighbourhoods [name] => Culture and neighbourhoods [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [13] => Array ( [id] => 127 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/127-sport [name] => Sport [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 128 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/128-sports-monographs [name] => Sports - Monographs [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [14] => Array ( [id] => 129 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/129-communication [name] => Communication [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 130 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/130-mass-media [name] => Mass media [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 131 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/131-european-audiovisual-observatory [name] => European Audiovisual Observatory [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 132 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/132-new-information-technologies [name] => New information technologies [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 412 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/412-artificial-intelligence [name] => Artificial intelligence [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [15] => Array ( [id] => 133 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/133-european-issues [name] => European issues [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 134 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/134-activities-annual-report [name] => Activities Annual Report [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 135 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/135-democracy-debates [name] => Democracy Debates [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 136 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/136-european-debates [name] => European debates [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 137 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/137-books-on-europe [name] => Books on Europe [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 138 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/138-other-fields [name] => Other fields [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 373 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/373-catalogues-of-publications [name] => Catalogues of publications [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 7 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/7-online-resources [name] => Online resources [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 378 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/378-the-council-of-europe-in-brief [name] => The Council of Europe in brief [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 170 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/170-human-rights [name] => Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 187 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/187-children-s-rights [name] => Children's rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 172 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/172-european-convention-on-human-rights [name] => European Convention on Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 191 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/191-violence-against-women-and-domestic-violence [name] => Violence against women and domestic violence [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 176 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/176-death-penalty [name] => Death penalty [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 192 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/192-trafficking-in-human-beings [name] => Trafficking in human beings [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 177 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/177-prevention-of-torture [name] => Prevention of torture [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 178 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/178-racism [name] => Racism [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 179 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/179-democracy [name] => Democracy [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 180 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/180-democracy-through-law [name] => Democracy Through Law [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 181 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/181-forum-for-the-future-of-democracy [name] => Forum for the Future of Democracy [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 182 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/182-civil-society [name] => Civil society [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 186 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/186-human-dignity [name] => Human dignity [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 193 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/193-society [name] => Society [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 194 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/194-living-together-diversity-and-freedom-in-europe [name] => Living Together - Diversity and Freedom in Europe [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 195 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/195-european-social-charter [name] => European Social Charter [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 205 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/205-drugs [name] => Drugs [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 196 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/196-migration [name] => Migration [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 190 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/190-gender-equality [name] => Gender Equality [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 197 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/197-council-of-europe-development-bank [name] => Council of Europe Development Bank [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 222 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/222-lgbt [name] => LGBT [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [7] => Array ( [id] => 223 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/223-people-with-disabilities [name] => People with disabilities [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 198 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/198-internet-media [name] => Internet, Media [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 199 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/199-internet [name] => Internet [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 200 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/200-children-and-the-internet [name] => Children and the Internet [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 201 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/201-media-freedom [name] => Media freedom [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 202 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/202-cybercrime [name] => Cybercrime [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [6] => Array ( [id] => 203 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/203-health [name] => Health [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 204 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/204-bioethics [name] => Bioethics [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 206 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/206-pharmaceutical-and-healthcare-europe [name] => Pharmaceutical and healthcare Europe [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 207 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/207-health-protection [name] => Health protection [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [7] => Array ( [id] => 208 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/208-culture-heritage-nature [name] => Culture, Heritage, Nature [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 210 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/210-european-cultural-convention [name] => European Cultural Convention [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 211 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/211-intercultural-and-interreligious-dialogue [name] => Intercultural and interreligious dialogue [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 212 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/212-biological-diversity-bern-convention [name] => Biological diversity - Bern Convention [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 214 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/214-climate-change [name] => Climate change [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [8] => Array ( [id] => 215 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/215-council-of-europe-and-the-eu [name] => Council of Europe and the EU [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 216 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/216-council-of-europe-and-european-union-different-roles-shared-values [name] => Council of Europe and European Union : different roles, shared values [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 217 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/217-eu-accession-to-the-european-convention-on-human-rights [name] => EU accession to the European Convention on Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [9] => Array ( [id] => 218 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/218-minorities-rights [name] => Minorities' Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 219 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/219-national-minorities [name] => National minorities [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 220 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/220-minority-languages [name] => Minority languages [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 221 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/221-roma-and-travellers [name] => Roma and Travellers [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [10] => Array ( [id] => 224 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/224-education-languages-sport-youth [name] => Education, languages, sport, youth [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 226 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/226-teaching-history [name] => Teaching History [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [11] => Array ( [id] => 233 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/233-law [name] => Law [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 234 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/234-organised-crime [name] => Organised crime [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 235 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/235-corruption [name] => Corruption [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 237 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/237-personal-data [name] => Personal data [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 175 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/175-european-prison-reform [name] => European prison reform [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 238 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/238-terrorism [name] => Terrorism [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [5] => Array ( [id] => 239 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/239-efficiency-of-justice [name] => Efficiency of justice [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) [12] => Array ( [id] => 240 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/240-institutions [name] => Institutions [desc] => [children] => Array ( [0] => Array ( [id] => 242 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/242-parliamentary-assembly [name] => Parliamentary Assembly  [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [1] => Array ( [id] => 243 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/243-congress-of-local-and-regional-authorities [name] => Congress of Local and Regional Authorities  [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [2] => Array ( [id] => 244 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/244-european-court-of-human-rights [name] => European Court of Human Rights [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [3] => Array ( [id] => 246 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/246-conference-of-ingos [name] => Conference of INGOs [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) [4] => Array ( [id] => 247 [link] => https://book.coe.int/en/247-secretary-general [name] => Secretary General [desc] => [children] => Array ( ) ) ) ) ) ) ) ) 1

Catalog

Newsletter

Evaluation of fifteen years of constitutional practice in Central and Eastern Europe (Science and technique of Democracy No. 40) (2005)

Constitutional Law
Format : Paper
978-92-871-5908-3
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
English
Size :
16 x 24 cm
Number of pages :
98
Venice Commission
13.00 € / 20.00 $US
A decade and a half after the democratic transition in the countries of central and eastern Europe, the Venice Commission marked its fifteen years of existence by looking back over this period of institutional upheaval.The Warsaw seminar, which inaugurated the work of the Polish chairmanship of the Committee of Ministers of the Council of Europe, viewed these fifteen years of change in the light of constitutional practice. Thus, two basic approaches were adopted: the role of the executive in this practice, and the influence of electoral systems in institutional change.The papers and discussions in Warsaw brought together specialists from very different backgrounds. Marking a convergence between constitutional law and electoral law, this conference retraced fifteen years over which the outlines of powers have gradually taken shape. Depending on the state, the executive has moved towards a presidential, semi-presidential, or parliamentary form of government, with a trend towards the latter two.During this period, electoral systems underwent major changes, sometimes dictated by general interest and sometimes responding to partisan demands. In all institutions the electoral systems have kept pace with constitutional practice and change, and have thus led progressively towards honest and genuine choices for citizens.