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Catalog

Newsletter

Iris Special 2021-1 - Décrypter la législation sur les services numériques (2022)

European Audiovisual Observatory
978-92-871-9153-3
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
French
Size :
A4
Number of pages :
166
Observatoire européen de l'audiovisuel
11.00 € / 11.00 $US
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Une analyse approfondie de la manière dont le droit européen des médias se propose de relever les défis de la régulation des contenus en ligne et des fournisseurs de services numériques par le biais de la DSA.

En 2019, la Commission européenne a lancé le processus d’adoption de la législation sur les services numériques (Digital Services Act - DSA) qui vise à moderniser le cadre juridique actuel des services intermédiaires en ligne. Ce processus a abouti à la publication de deux nouvelles propositions de règlements, à savoir la législation sur les services numériques (DSA) et la loi sur les marchés numériques (DMA).

La DSA est un peu comme une poupée russe. Elle encadre les services intermédiaires offrant une infrastructure de réseau et comporte des règles spécifiques pour les services d’hébergement, les plateformes en ligne et les très grandes plateformes. Les très grandes plateformes sont des plateformes en ligne qui touchent plus de 10% de la population de l’UE (45 millions d’utilisateurs) et sont réputées de nature systémique.
1. Introduction générale 
2. La législation sur les services numériques et le pouvoir des médias sociaux de réguler le discours : obligations, responsabilités et protections 
2.1. Introduction
2.2. La régulation de l’expression publique et privée
2.3. Responsabilité des intermédiaires : de la Directive sur le commerce électronique à la DSA
2.4. Les régimes de responsabilité dans la DSA
2.4.1. Introduction
2.4.2. Mécanismes de notification et d’action 
2.4.3. Enquêtes d’initiative propre
2.4.4. Les difficultés d’interprétation de l’article 6 de la DSA 
2.5. Évaluation et atténuation des risques systémiques 
2.5.1. Évaluation des risques systémiques 
2.5.2. Atténuation des risques systémiques 
2.6. Conclusions
3. Réglementer la modération des contenus illicites en ligne 
3.1. Portée et structure du chapitre 
3.2. L’indépendance du cyberespace : la Directive sur le commerce électronique
3.3. Le début de la fin : le nouveau cadre réglementaire de l’UE pour la modération des contenus en ligne 
3.3.1. La régulation de la modération de certains types de contenus en ligne 
3.3.2. La régulation de la modération par des types spécifiques d’intermédiaires numériques : les plateformes de partage de vidéos 
3.3.3. Une réglementation pour tous : une réinterprétation de la Directive sur le commerce électronique 
3.3.4. Vue d’ensemble du cadre réglementaire de l’UE et des pratiques actuelles de modération en ligne 
3.4. La fin de l’indépendance du cyberespace : la législation sur les services numériques
3.4.1. La proposition de DSA et la modération du contenu 
3.4.2. Obligations asymétriques 
3.5. Conclusions 
4. Du risque à la récompense? L’approche fondée sur le risque de la DSA pour lutter contre la désinformation 
4.1. Introduction
4.2. Le paysage de la désinformation
4.2.1. Une définition évolutive
4.2.2. Le cadre réglementaire et politique élargi 
4.3. Présentation de l’approche fondée sur le risque de la DSA pour lutter contre la désinformation 
4.4. Atténuation des risques
4.5. Assurer le contrôle et la transparence
4.6. Une affaire risquée ? L’approche fondée sur le risque dans la pratique
4.7. Conclusion 
5. La législation sur les services numériques et l’application du droit d’auteur : le cas de l’article 17 de la Directive DSM*
5.1. Introduction
5.1.1. Les origines communes de la Directive DSM et de la DSA 
5.2. Structure et contenu de l’article 17 de la Directive DSM
5.2.1. Contestation de l’article 17 par la Pologne
5.3. En quoi la relation entre l’article 17 et la DSA est-elle particulière ? 
5.3.1. La notion de FSPC : établissement, accessibilité, et ciblage de l’UE
5.3.2. Le mécanisme de responsabilité spécifique de l’article 17, paragraphe 4
5.3.3. Applicabilité de l’exemption de responsabilité
5.3.4. Le mécanisme de plainte et de recours et la protection contre les abus
5.4. Conclusion
6. La proposition de législation sur les marchés numériques (DMA) : à propos des contrôleurs d’accès, de l’équité et de la transparence dans l’environnement en ligne
6.1. Introduction
6.2. La DMA en bref 
6.3. Un champ d’application large mais limité à peu d’acteurs
6.3.1. Acteurs visés
6.3.2. Procédure de désignation
6.4. Obligations et interdictions ou « ce qu’il faut faire et ne pas faire » pour les contrôleurs d’accès
6.4.1. Aspects structurels
6.4.2. Gros plan sur quelques-unes des obligations
6.5. Mise en œuvre : une approche centralisée 
6.6. Conclusion 
7. Le « contrôle de l’accès » dans le secteur audiovisuel : contexte économique, concurrence et réglementation 
7.1. Introduction
7.2. La concurrence et les contrôleurs d’accès dans l’économie numérique : l’économie sous-jacente
7.3. Concurrence et contrôle de l’accès sur les marchés du streaming
7.4. Conséquences réglementaires pour les marchés du streaming audiovisuel d’un point de vue économique 
7.4.1. L’autopréférence
7.4.2. Intégration verticale
7.4.3. Résumé
8. Synthèse de la série de webinaires de l’Observatoire consacrés à la DSA 
8.1. Première approche des nouvelles règles européennes sur les services en ligne et de leur impact sur l’industrie de l’audiovisuel 
8.1.1. Présentation du contexte : la nouvelle législation sur les services numériques 
8.1.2. La rubrique des experts : concurrence, responsabilité et articulation entre la DSA, la Directive SMA et la Directive DSM 
8.1.3. Le forum des parties prenantes : la DSA ou la mise à jour indispensable d'un cadre juridique obsolète
8.2. Webinaire n° 1 : transparence de la modération des contenus sur les médias sociaux 
8.2.1. Présentation du contexte.
8.2.2. La rubrique de l’expert : la modération des contenus illicites en ligne par les plateformes 
8.2.3. Le forum des parties prenantes : la modération des contenus du point de vue des plateformes, des consommateurs et des ARN des médias 
8.3. Webinaire n° 2 : les contrôleurs d’accès dans la législation sur les services numériques : qu’en est-il de la VOD? 
8.3.1. Présentation du contexte
8.3.2. La rubrique de l’expert : aspects réglementaires et liés à la concurrence
8.3.3. Le forum des parties prenantes : le marché de la VOD est-il un marché concurrentiel et fortement réglementé sans contrôleurs d’accès ? 
8.4. Webinaire n° 3 : droit d’auteur et DSA 
8.4.1. Présentation du contexte
8.4.2. La rubrique des experts : risques et opportunités de la DSA
8.4.3. Le forum des parties prenantes : articulation entre DSA et droit d'auteur, risques, défis et opportunités 
8.5. Webinaire n° 4 : DSA et lutte contre la désinformation
8.5.1. Présentation du contexte
8.5.2. La rubrique de l’expert : risques et opportunités pour la lutte contre la désinformation
8.5.3. Le forum des parties prenantes : lutte contre la désinformation, liberté d'expression et accès aux données 
8.6. Liste des participants 
Illustration
Illustration 1. Obligations prévues dans la DSA
Tableaux
Tableau 1 Cadre réglementaire de l’UE sur la modération des contenus illicites en ligne 
Tableau 2 Définitions de travail de la désinformation