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PDF - Compilation des normes du Conseil de l’Europe relatives aux principes de liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion et liens avec d’autres droits de l’homme (2016)

Human Rights and Democracy
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La Cour européenne des droits de l’homme décrit la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion, énoncée à l’article 9 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme, comme l’une des assises d’une société démocratique. Elle est d’une valeur fondamentale non seulement pour les croyants, mais aussi pour les athées, les agnostiques, les sceptiques ou les indifférents. Le pluralisme, qui caractérise une société démocratique, en dépend.

La présente compilation est la première publication à fournir un aperçu complet des normes actuelles du Conseil de l’Europe relatives aux principes de la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion et les liens vers d’autres droits énoncés dans la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme et dans la jurisprudence de la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme qui interprète ces droits. Les normes juridiques fixées par la Convention sont complétées par d’autres traités pertinents. Il existe également des recommandations et des lignes directrices adoptées par d’autres organes, qui, bien que non juridiquement contraignantes, sont néanmoins considérées comme faisant partie du recueil des normes du Conseil de l’Europe.

Ces normes sont présentées de manière non hiérarchique et sous forme de thèmes, afin de souligner le rôle complémentaire des différents organes du Conseil de l’Europe. La compilation est complétée par un recueil de bonnes pratiques nationales publiées sur le site www.coe.int/cddh. Une sélection de bonnes pratiques des Etats membres figure en annexe à la compilation.

Table des matières

Préface
1. Introduction
     i. La présente compilation dans le contexte élargi des valeurs et des travaux du Conseil de l’Europe
     ii. Brève présentation des différents organes compétents du Conseil de l’Europe et de leurs mandats
2. Principes généraux et définitions
     i. Le droit à la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion, un pilier des sociétés démocratiques
     ii. Dimensions intérieure et extérieure de la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion
     iii. Restrictions
     iv. Obligations positives
     v. Nécessité d’un équilibre entre les droits
     vi. Marge d’appréciation (compte tenu de la diversité des approches adoptées par les autorités nationales dans ce domaine)
     vii. Obligation de neutralité et d’impartialité de l’Etat
     viii. Non-discrimination fondée sur la pensée, la conscience et la religion
3. Questions thématiques
A. Le droit individuel à la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion
     i. Liberté de manifester sa pensée, conscience et religion
     ii. Port de symboles et de vêtements religieux (codes vestimentaires)
     iii. Manifestation de la religion et des convictions dans différents contextes
     iv. Droits des personnes privées de liberté
     v. Objection de conscience au service militaire
     vi. Situations dans lesquelles une personne se voit dans l’obligation de divulguer sa religion ou ses convictions ou d’agir d’une manière contraire à sa religion ou ses convictions
     vii. Questions relatives aux traitements médicaux
     viii. Prosélytisme
     ix. Droit à l’instruction des enfants conformément aux convictions religieuses et philosophiques des parents
     x. Questions spécifiques relatives au droit à la liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion des enfants
B. Relations de l’Etat avec les communautés religieuses
     i. Autonomie et droits des communautés religieuses
     ii. Enregistrement et reconnaissance
     iii. Evaluation des mouvements religieux (sectes)
     iv. Propriété (y compris les questions relatives aux lieux de culte, aux cimetières, etc.)
     v. Financement et taxation
C. La protection des personnes en raison de leur pensée, conscience et religion
     i. Questions liées aux articles 2 et 3 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme
     ii. Protection des personnes appartenant à des groupes religieux minoritaires
     iii. Discours de haine et crimes de haine fondés sur la pensée, la conscience et la religion
     iv. Questions relatives à la protection internationale fondée sur la pensée, la conscience et la religion
Annexe – Séléction de bonnes pratiques pertinentes reçues d’Etats membres
Index des affaires

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PDF - Compilation des normes du Conseil de l’Europe relatives aux principes de liberté de pensée, de conscience et de religion et liens avec d’autres droits de l’homme