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Catalog

Newsletter

IRIS Spécial - La régulation de l'accès à la télévision numérique et le Glossaire de la télévision numérique (2004)

  • Online only
European Audiovisual Observatory
978-92-871-5400-2
Type of document :
Book
Format :
Paper
Language :
French
Number of pages :
139
Observatoire européen de l'Audiovisuel
44.00 € / 66.00 $US
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Comment devraient être réglés les dispositifs techniques modernes utilisés pour commander l'accès à la télévision?* Peut-on, doit-on ou veut-on même les réguler?* Sont-ils déjà régis par la réglementation en vigueur?Ces questions liées à la technologie de la télévision numérique sont très différentes de celles posées par la concentration classique dans les médias. Si l'on se penche sur les spécificités de la télévision numérique, on découvre un grand nombre de nouvelles formes de concentration du "pouvoir sur le marché des médias", qui sont essentiellement le résultat du contrôle exercé sur les services techniques tels que, entre autres, les interfaces de programmes d'application, les guides électroniques des programmes, les portails, les bouquets ou le multiplexage. Quiconque maîtrise aujourd'hui à la fois la terminologie et la technologie correspondante dispose d'un vaste choix de modèles et de configurations lui permettant de tirer profit du marché des médias. Or, ces profits sont-ils légitimes, voire même souhaitables, ou sont-ils contraires aux règles de la concurrence ? Et surtout, constituent-ils une menace pour la diversité d'opinion de nos médias ? Le problème du contrôle d'accès se pose à tous les stades de la télévision numérique: au niveau de l'assemblage et de la préparation des contenus destinés au transport, de l'émission et de la réception des contenus (cryptés ou non), y compris de tous les dispositifs techniques requis à cet effet, de la composition des bouquets, des aides de sélection des programmes et, enfin, au niveau de tous les dispositifs techniques permettant au téléspectateur de visionner les contenus. Plus les étapes assurées par un seul et même prestataire sont nombreuses, c'est-à-dire plus le marché a une structure d'intégration verticale, plus la problématique du contrôle d'accès devient cruciale.Cet IRIS Spécial se présente en trois volets :Le premier volet constitue une brève présentation du sujet. Le deuxième volet comporte les contributions qui servent d'une part, à définir les aspects techniques, juridiques et économiques du problème et, d'autre part, à présenter les modes de régulation possibles. Ce volet étudie également dans quelle mesure les problèmes mentionnés sont régis par la directive "accès" de la CE et s'il ne convient pas de les classer dans le domaine du droit de la concentration des médias. Mais d'autres orientations sont également envisageables et donnent lieu à des débats, notamment l'option du droit européen de la concurrence ou d'une politique de laisser faire, telle qu'elle est pratiquée aux Etats-Unis. Les différentes contributions exposent les arguments en faveur ou à l'encontre des différentes options tout en donnant une vision concrète de leur application. Le troisième volet, quant à lui, fournit des éléments contextuels généraux pour une meilleure compréhension de la directive CE en question.