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Catalog

Newsletter

PDF - Manuel de droit européen en matière de non-discrimination (édition 2018) (2018)

European Court of Human Rights
978-92-871-9852-5
Type of document :
Book
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
3,05 MB
Number of pages :
330
Free

La protection contre la discrimination en Europe se trouve à la fois dans le droit de l'UE et dans celui du Conseil de l'Europe. Les deux systèmes fonctionnent séparément, mais ils peuvent s'influencer mutuellement par le biais de leur jurisprudence.

Le droit européen en matière de non-discrimination, constitué en particulier des directives européennes relatives à la non-discrimination, de l’article 14 de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme et du Protocole nº 12 à cette convention, interdit toute discrimination fondée sur un certain nombre de motifs et exercée dans un certain nombre de contextes. Le présent manuel examine la législation européenne dans ce domaine, telle qu’elle découle de ces deux sources fondamentales, citant indifféremment l’un ou l’autre de ces systèmes juridiques complémentaires lorsque ceux-ci se recoupent ou mettant en exergue leurs divergences lorsqu’ils diffèrent. Il fait également référence à d’autres instruments du Conseil de l’Europe, en particulier la Charte sociale européenne, ainsi qu’à des instruments pertinents des Nations Unies. Au vu de l’impressionnant corpus jurisprudentiel en matière de non-discrimination établi par la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme et par la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne, il est apparu utile d’élaborer un manuel consacré à ce domaine qui soit aisément accessible aux praticiens du droit – tels les juges, procureurs, avocats et agents des services répressifs – qui exercent dans les États membres de l’Union européenne et du Conseil de l’Europe ou au-delà.

Pour commander le manuel ou toute autre publication de l'Agence des droits fondamentaux (FRA)

Autres langues

AVANT-PROPOS
ABRÉVIATIONS
COMMENT UTILISER CE MANUEL ?
1 INTRODUCTION AU DROIT EUROPÉEN EN MATIÈRE DE NON-DISCRIMINATION : CONTEXTE, ÉVOLUTION ET PRINCIPES FONDAMENTAUX
1.1. Contexte et historique du droit européen en matière de nondiscrimination
Points clés
1.1.1. Conseil de l’Europe : évolution du droit de la nondiscrimination
Point clé
1.1.2. Union européenne : évolution du droit de la nondiscrimination
Points clés
1.1.3. Le droit européen en matière de non-discrimination et les traités des Nations Unies relatifs aux droits de l’homme
Points clés
1.2. Qui jouit d’une protection au titre du droit européen en matière de non-discrimination ?
Points clés
1.3. Le champ d’application de la CEDH : article 14 et Protocole nº 12
Points clés
1.3.1. Les droits couverts par la CEDH
1.3.2. Portée des droits consacrés par la CEDH
1.3.3. Protocole nº 12 à la CEDH
1.4. Portée du droit européen en matière de non-discrimination
Points clés
2 CATÉGORIES DE DISCRIMINATION
Point clé
2.1. Discrimination directe
Points clés
2.1.1. Un traitement moins favorable
2.1.2. Un élément de comparaison
2.1.3. Causalité
2.1.4. Discrimination par association
2.2. Discrimination indirecte
Points clés
2.2.1. Une disposition, un critère ou une pratique apparemment neutre
2.2.2. Un effet nettement plus défavorable sur un groupe protégé
2.2.3. Un élément de comparaison
2.3. Discrimination multiple et intersectionnelle
Points clés
2.4. Harcèlement et injonction à pratiquer une discrimination
2.4.1. Le harcèlement et l’injonction à pratiquer une discrimination au regard des directives de l’Union européenne relatives à la non-discrimination
Point clé
2.4.2. Le harcèlement et l’injonction à pratiquer une discrimination au regard de la Convention européenne des droits de l’homme et de la Charte sociale européenne
2.5. Mesures spéciales ou spécifiques
Points clés
2.6. Crimes de haine
Point clé
2.7. Discours de haine
Point clé
3 MOTIFS SUSCEPTIBLES DE JUSTIFIER UN TRAITEMENT MOINS FAVORABLE ADMIS PAR LE DROIT EUROPÉEN EN MATIÈRE DE NON-DISCRIMINATION
3.1. Application de la justification objective dans le cadre de la CEDH
Points clés
3.2. Application de la justification objective dans le cadre du droit de
l’UE
Point clé
3.3. Motifs de justification spécifiques dans le droit de l’UE
Points clés
3.3.1. L’exigence professionnelle essentielle
3.3.2. Les institutions religieuses
3.3.3. Les exceptions fondées sur l’âge
4 SÉLECTION DE CARACTÉRISTIQUES PROTÉGÉES
Point clé
4.1. Emploi
4.2. Accès au régime de prévoyance sociale et à la sécurité sociale
4.3. Éducation
4.4. Accès à la fourniture de biens et de services, y compris le logement
4.5. Accès à la justice
4.6. Sphère « personnelle » : vie privée et familiale, adoption, domicile et mariage
4.7. Participation à la vie politique : liberté d’expression, de réunion et d’association, et élections libres
4.8. Matières relevant du droit pénal
5 CARACTÉRISTIQUES PROTÉGÉES
Points clés
5.1. Sexe
5.2. Identité de genre
Points clés
5.3. Orientation sexuelle
5.4. Handicap
5.5. Âge
5.6. Origine ethnique ou raciale, couleur, appartenance à une minorité nationale
5.7. Nationalité ou origine nationale
Points clés
5.8. Religion ou convictions
5.9. Origine sociale, naissance et fortune
5.10. Langue
5.11. Opinion politique ou autre
5.12. « Toute autre situation »
6 QUESTIONS DE PROCÉDURE DANS LE DROIT DE LA NON-DISCRIMINATION
Points clés
6.1. Renversement de la charge de la preuve
6.2. Circonstances non pertinentes pour conclure à l’existence d’une discrimination
6.3. Rôle des statistiques et autres données
6.4. Application du droit relatif à la non-discrimination
Points clés
JURISPRUDENCE
INDEX
LISTE DES TEXTES JURIDIQUES
REMARQUES RELATIVES AUX CITATIONS