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PDF - Manuel de droit européen en matière d’accès à la justice (2016)

European Court of Human Rights
Format : PDF PDF
978-92-871-9891-4
Type of document :
Handbook
Format :
PDF
Language :
French
Size :
2,4 MB
Number of pages :
238
Free

L’accès à la justice est reconnu comme un droit fondamental; mais comment est-il garanti?

L’accès à la justice est un élément important de l’État de droit. Il permet aux individus de se protéger contre toute atteinte à leurs droits, d’introduire des recours contre les fautes civiles, de demander au pouvoir exécutif de rendre des comptes et de se défendre dans les procédures pénales. Ce manuel résume les grands principes juridiques européens en matière d’accès à la justice, en s’intéressant plus particulièrement au droit civil et au droit pénal. Il a pour but de sensibiliser le public aux normes juridiques établies par l’Union européenne et le Conseil de l’Europe, notamment au travers de la jurisprudence de la Cour de justice de l’Union européenne et la Cour européenne des droits de l’homme. Ce manuel se veut un guide pratique à destination des avocats, des juges et autres praticiens du droit amenés à traiter des litiges dans les États membres de l’Union européenne et du Conseil de l’Europe, ainsi que des particuliers qui travaillent pour des organisations non gouvernementales ou d’autres entités en charge de l’administration de la justice.

Pour commander le manuel imprimé ou toute autre publication de l'Agence des droits fondamentaux (FRA), veuillez vous adresser à : info@fra.europa.eu

Téléchargez ici le manuel (format PDF)

Table des matières
AVANT-PROPOS
PRATIQUES ENCOURAGEANTES
ABRÉVIATIONS ET ACRONYMES
COMMENT UTILISER CE MANUEL ?
1 QUE SIGNIFIE « ACCÈS À LA JUSTICE » ?
   Points clés
2 UN PROCÈS ÉQUITABLE ET PUBLIC DEVANT UN TRIBUNAL INDÉPENDANT ET IMPARTIAL OU DEVANT D’AUTRES ORGANISMES
   2.1. L’accès à la justice auprès des tribunaux
   Points clés
          2.1.1. Le droit d’accès à un tribunal
          2.1.2. Définition d’un « tribunal »
   2.2. L’indépendance et l’impartialité des juridictions
   Points clés
   2.3. Qu’est-ce qu’un procès équitable et public ?
   Points clés
          2.3.1. Un procès équitable
          2.3.2. Un procès public
   2.4. Les modes alternatifs d’accès à la justice
   Points clés
          2.4.1. Les organes non judiciaires
          2.4.2. Les modes alternatifs de règlement des litiges
3 L’AIDE JURIDICTIONNELLE
   3.1. L’aide juridictionnelle dans le cadre des procédures non pénales
   Points clés
          3.1.1. Le champ d’application
          3.1.2. Critères : les moyens financiers et le bien-fondé de la demande
   3.2. L’aide juridictionnelle dans le cadre des procédures pénales
   Points clés
          3.2.1. Le champ d’application
          3.2.2. Le critère des moyens financiers
          3.2.3. Le critère des intérêts de la justice
4 LE DROIT DE SE FAIRE CONSEILLER, DÉFENDRE ET REPRÉSENTER
   4.1. Le droit de se faire conseiller, défendre et représenter dans le cadre des procédures non pénales
   Points clés
          4.1.1. Le champ d’application
          4.1.2. L’assistance concrète et effective d’un avocat
   4.2. Le droit de se faire conseiller, défendre et représenter dans le cadre des procédures pénales
   Points clés
          4.2.1. Le champ d’application
          4.2.2. La qualité de l’assistance par un avocat
          4.2.3. L’assistance d’un défenseur de son choix
          4.2.4. Le temps et les facilités nécessaires à la préparation de sa défense
          4.2.5. La renonciation
   4.3. Le droit de se défendre soi-même
   Points clés
5 LE DROIT À UN RECOURS EFFECTIF
   5.1. Qu’est-ce qu’un recours effectif ?
   Points clés
          5.1.1. Les conditions de fond ou d’ordre procédural
          5.1.2. Les exigences institutionnelles d’un recours effectif
   5.2. Exemples de recours
   Points clés
          5.2.1. L’indemnisation
          5.2.2. L’exécution en nature
          5.2.3. Les injonctions
6 LES LIMITATIONS DE L’ACCÈS À LA JUSTICE EN GÉNÉRAL
   6.1. Objectif légitime et proportionnalité
   Points clés
   6.2. Exemples de restrictions avant une décision ou un arrêt définitifs
   Points clés
          6.2.1. Les frais de justice
          6.2.2. Le formalisme excessif
          6.2.3. Les obstacles concernant les moyens de preuve
          6.2.4. Les délais à respecter
          6.2.5. Les immunités
   6.3. Les retards dans l’exécution des arrêts définitifs
   Points clés
7 LES LIMITATIONS DE L’ACCÈS À LA JUSTICE : DURÉE DES PROCÉDURES
   7.1. L’appréciation de la durée des procédures
   Points clés
          7.1.1. L’appréciation de la durée des procédures ne relevant pas du droit pénal
          7.1.2. L’appréciation de la durée des procédures pénales
   7.2. Les critères permettant d’apprécier le caractère raisonnable de la durée des procédures
   Points clés
          7.2.1. La complexité de l’affaire
          7.2.2. Le comportement du plaignant
          7.2.3. Le comportement des autorités nationales
          7.2.4. L’enjeu du litige pour le plaignant
   7.3. Les recours en cas de durée excessive d’une procédure
8 L’ACCÈS À LA JUSTICE DANS CERTAINS DOMAINES SPÉCIFIQUES
   8.1. Les personnes handicapées
   Points clés
          8.1.1. L’accès à la justice
          8.1.2. La capacité
   8.2. Les victimes de la criminalité
   Points clés
   8.3. Les détenus et autres personnes privées de liberté
   Points clés
          8.3.1. L’accès à un tribunal et à un avocat
          8.3.2. Le droit de contester la privation de liberté
          8.3.3. L’indemnisation pour détention illégale
   8.4. Droit de l’environnement
   Points clés
   8.5. La justice en ligne
   Points clés
LECTURES COMPLÉMENTAIRES
JURISPRUDENCE
LISTE DE LA JURISPRUDENCE

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